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This glossary includes terms and definitions for WebSphere eXtreme Scale.

The following cross-references are used in this glossary:

  1. See refers the reader from a term to a preferred synonym, or from an acronym or abbreviation to the defined full form.

  2. See also refers the reader to a related or contrasting term.

To view glossaries for other IBM products, go to

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A person responsible for administrative tasks such as access authorization and content management. Administrators can also grant levels of authority to users.


A program that performs an action on behalf of a user or other program without user intervention or on a regular schedule, and reports the results back to the user or program.


See authorized program analysis report.


See application programming interface.


One or more computer programs or software components that provide a function in direct support of a specific business process or processes.

application programming interface (API)

An interface that allows an application program that is written in a high-level language to use specific data or functions of the operating system or another program.

application server

A server program in a distributed network that provides the execution environment for an application program.


Pertaining to events that are not synchronized in time or do not occur in regular or predictable time intervals.

asynchronous messaging

A method of communication between programs in which a program places a message on a message queue, then proceeds with its own processing without waiting for a reply to its message.

asynchronous replica

A shard that receives updates after the transaction commits. This method is faster than a synchronous replica, but introduces the possibility of data loss because the asynchronous replica can be several transactions behind the primary shard.

authenticated user

A portal user who has logged in to the portal with a valid account (user ID and password). Authenticated users have access to all public places.


A security service that provides proof that a user of a computer system is genuinely who that person claims to be. Common mechanisms for implementing this service are passwords and digital signatures. Authentication is distinct from authorization; authentication is not concerned with granting or denying access to system resources.

authentication alias

An alias that authorizes access to resource adapters and data sources. An authentication alias contains authentication data, including a user ID and password.


The process of granting a user, system, or process either complete or restricted access to an object, resource, or function.

authorization policy

A policy whose policy target is a business service and whose contract contains one or more assertions that grant permission to run a channel action.

authorization table

A table that contains the role to user or group mapping information that identifies the permitted access of a client to a particular resource.

authorized program analysis report (APAR)

A request for correction of a defect in a supported release of an IBM-supplied program.


The discovery of service artifacts in a file system, external registry, or another source.

autonomic manager

A set of software or hardware components, configured by policies, which manage the behavior of other software or hardware components as a human might manage them. An autonomic manager includes a control loop that consists of monitor, analyze, plan, and execute components.


1. The condition allowing users to access and use their applications and data.

2. The time periods during which a resource is accessible. For example, a contractor might have an availability of 9 AM to 5 PM every weekday, and 9 AM to 3 PM on Saturdays.


A definition or instance of a JavaBeans™ component. See also JavaBeans, enterprise bean.

bean class

In Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) programming, a Java class that implements a javax.ejb.EntityBean class or javax.ejb.SessionBean class.

Bean Scripting Framework

An architecture for incorporating scripting language functions to Java applications.

bean-managed messaging

A function of asynchronous messaging that gives an enterprise bean complete control over the messaging infrastructure.

bean-managed persistence (BMP)

The mechanism whereby data transfer between an entity bean's variables and a resource manager is managed by the entity bean. (Sun)

bean-managed transaction (BMT)

The capability of the session bean, servlet, or application client component to manage its own transactions directly, instead of through a container.

binary format

Representation of a decimal value in which each field must be 2 or 4 bytes long. The sign (+ or -) is in the far left bit of the field, and the number value is in the remaining bits of the field. Positive numbers have a 0 in the sign bit and are in true form. Negative numbers have a 1 in the sign bit and are in twos complement form.


See bean-managed persistence.


See bean-managed transaction.


A small program that loads larger programs during system initialization.


The process by which an initial reference of the naming service is obtained. The bootstrap setting and the host name form the initial context for Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) references.


A place in the system where contention for a resource is affecting performance.

bottom-up development

In Web services, the process of developing a service from an existing artifact such as a Java bean or enterprise bean rather than a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file.


A marked point in a process or programmatic flow that causes that flow to pause when the point is reached, typically to allow debugging or monitoring.

build definition file

An XML file that identifies components and characteristics for a customized installation package (CIP).

build path

The path that is used during compilation of Java source code, in order to find referenced classes that reside in other projects.

build plan

An XML file that defines the processing necessary to build generation outputs and that specifies the machine where processing takes place.

build time data

Objects that are not used by the translator, such as EDI standards, record oriented data document types, and maps.


Machine-independent code generated by the Java compiler and executed by the Java interpreter. (Sun)

cache instance resource

A location where any Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application can store, distribute, and share data.

cache replication

The sharing of cache IDs, cache entries, and cache invalidations with other servers in the same replication domain.


A container that, depending on the container type, holds processes, data, resources, organizations, or reports in the project tree.

catalog service

A service that controls placement of shards and discovers and monitors the health of containers.


A container used in a structure diagram to group elements based on a shared attribute or quality.


1. A group of managed processes that are federated to the same deployment manager and can include high-availability core groups.

2. One or more processes that each host runtime components. Each has one or more named core groups.

cell-scoped binding

A binding scope where the binding is not specific to, and not associated with any node or server. This type of name binding is created under the persistent root context of a cell.


The metal frame in which various electronic components are mounted.

child node

A node within the scope of another node.


See customized installation package.


In object-oriented design or programming, a model or template that can be used to create objects with a common definition and common properties, operations, and behavior. An object is an instance of a class.

class file

A compiled Java source file.

class hierarchy

The relationships between classes that share a single inheritance.

class loader

Part of the JVM (JVM) that is responsible for finding and loading class files. A class loader affects the packaging of applications and the runtime behavior of packaged applications deployed on application servers.

class path

A list of directories and JAR files that contain resource files or Java classes that a program can load dynamically at run time.


A specialized attribute used for grouping and color-coding process elements.


A software program or computer that requests services from a server. See also host.

client application

An application, running on a workstation and linked to a client, that gives the application access to queuing services on a server.


Pertaining to the model of interaction in distributed data processing in which a program on one computer sends a request to a program on another computer and awaits a response. The requesting program is called a client; the answering program is called a server.


An embeddable, all Java, object-relational database management system (ORDBMS).


A group of application servers that collaborate for the purposes of workload balancing and failover.


Pertaining to viewing a group of objects from an abstract or high level.

coherent cache

Cache that maintains integrity so that all clients see the same data.

collection certificate store

A collection of intermediate certificates or certificate revocation lists (CRL) that are used by a certificate path to build up a certificate chain for validation.

comma delimited file

A file whose records contain fields that are separated by a comma.

command bean

A proxy that can invoke a single operation using an execute() method.

command line

The blank line on a display where commands, option numbers, or selections can be entered.

compilation unit

A portion of a computer program sufficiently complete to be compiled correctly.

compile time

The time period during which a computer program is being compiled into an executable program.


1. A reusable object or program that performs a specific function and works with other components and applications.

2. In Eclipse, one or more plug-ins that work together to deliver a discrete set of functions.

component element

An entity in a component where a breakpoint can be set, such as an activity or Java snippet in a business process, or a mediation primitive or node in a mediation flow.

component instance

A running component that can be running in parallel with other instances of the same component.

component test

An automated test of one or more components of an enterprise application, which may include Java classes, EJB beans, or Web services.

container server

A server instance that can host multiple shards. One JVM (JVM) can host multiple container servers.


In Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) programming, a class that translates a database representation to an object type and back.

create method

In enterprise beans, a method defined in the home interface and invoked by a client to create an enterprise bean. (Sun)


In the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) framework, a subject class that owns security-related attributes. These attributes can contain information used to authenticate the subject to new services.

customized installation package (CIP)

A customized installation image that can include one or more maintenance packages, a configuration archive file from a stand-alone server profile, one or more enterprise archive files, scripts, and other files that help customize the resulting installation.


A program that runs unattended to perform continuous or periodic functions, such as network control.


A Web page that can contain one or more viewers that graphically represent business data.

data grid

A system for accessing terabytes or petrabytes of data.


A family of IBM licensed programs for relational database management.


A condition in which two independent threads of control are blocked, each waiting for the other to take some action. Deadlock often arises from adding synchronization mechanisms to avoid race conditions.

demilitarized zone (DMZ)

A configuration that includes multiple firewalls to add layers of protection between a corporate intranet and a public network, such as the Internet.


To place files or install software into an operational environment. In Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE), this involves creating a deployment descriptor suitable to the type of application that is being deployed.

deploy phase

See deployment phase.

deployment code

Additional code that enables bean implementation code written by an application developer to work in a particular EJB runtime environment. Deployment code can be generated by tools that the application server vendor supplies.

deployment descriptor

An XML file that describes how to deploy a module or application by specifying configuration and container options. For example, an EJB deployment descriptor passes information to an EJB container about how to manage and control an enterprise bean.

deployment directory

The directory where the published server configuration and Web application are located on the machine where the application server is installed.

deployment environment

A collection of configured clusters, servers, and middleware that collaborate to provide an environment to host software modules. For example, a deployment environment might include a host for message destinations, a processor or sorter of business events, and administrative programs.

deployment manager

A server that manages operations for a logical group or cell of other servers.

deployment phase

A phase that includes a combination of creating the hosting environment for the applications and the deployment of those applications. This includes resolving the application's resource dependencies, operational conditions, capacity requirements, and integrity and access constraints.

deployment policy

An optional way to configure an eXtreme Scale environment based on various items, including: number of systems, servers, partitions, replicas (including type of replica), and heap sizes for each server.

deployment topology

The configuration of servers and clusters in a deployment environment and the physical and logical relationships among them.


Pertaining to an entity, such as a programming element or feature, that is supported but no longer recommended and that might become obsolete.


In object-oriented programming, the refinement or extension of one class from another.


A method for converting a serialized variable into object data.


An exit point that is used to deliver documents to a back-end system or a trading partner.

digital certificate

An electronic document used to identify an individual, a system, a server, a company, or some other entity, and to associate a public key with the entity. A digital certificate is issued by a certification authority and is digitally signed by that authority.

dirty read

A read request that does not involve any locking mechanism. This means that data can be read that might later be rolled back resulting in an inconsistency between what was read and what is in the database.

distributed eXtreme Scale

A usage pattern for interacting with eXtreme Scale when servers and clients exist on multiple processes.


See demilitarized zone.


See Domain Name System.

do-while loop

A loop that repeats the same sequence of activities as long as some condition is satisfied. Unlike a while loop, a do-while loop tests its condition at the end of the loop. This means that its sequence of activities always runs at least once.

document type definition (DTD)

The rules that specify the structure for a particular class of SGML or XML documents. The DTD defines the structure with elements, attributes, and notations, and it establishes constraints for how each element, attribute, and notation can be used within the particular class of documents.


An object, icon, or container that contains other objects representing the resources of a domain. The domain object can be used to manage those resources.

Domain Name System (DNS)

The distributed database system that maps domain names to IP addresses.


Pertaining to the direction of the flow, which is from the first node in the process (upstream) toward the last node in the process (downstream).


See pull-down.


See document type definition.

DTD document definition

A description or layout of an XML document based on an XML DTD.

dynamic cache

A consolidation of several caching activities, including servlets, Web services, and WebSphere commands into one service where these activities share configuration parameters and work together to improve performance.

dynamic cluster

A server cluster that uses weights to balance the workloads of its cluster members dynamically, based on performance information collected from cluster members.


See enterprise archive.

EAR project

See enterprise application project.


An open-source initiative that provides ISVs and other tool developers with a standard platform for developing plug-compatible application development tools.


A successive deployment generation of a particular set of versioned artifacts.

editor area

In Eclipse and Eclipse-based products, the area in the workbench window where files are opened for editing.


See Enterprise JavaBeans.

EJB container

A container that implements the EJB component contract of the Java EE architecture. This contract specifies a runtime environment for enterprise beans that includes security, concurrency, life cycle management, transaction, deployment, and other services. (Sun)

EJB context

In enterprise beans, an object that allows an enterprise bean to invoke services provided by the container and to obtain information about the caller of a client-invoked method. (Sun)

EJB factory

An access bean that simplifies the creating or finding of an enterprise bean instance.

EJB home object

In Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) programming, an object that provides the life cycle operations (create, remove, find) for an enterprise bean. (Sun)

EJB inheritance

A form of inheritance in which an enterprise bean inherits properties, methods, and method-level control descriptor attributes from another enterprise bean that resides in the same group.

EJB JAR file

A Java archive that contains an EJB module. (Sun)

EJB module

A software unit that consists of one or more enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. (Sun)

EJB object

In enterprise beans, an object whose class implements the enterprise bean remote interface (Sun).

EJB project

A project that contains the resources needed for EJB applications, including enterprise beans; home, local, and remote interfaces; JSP files; servlets; and deployment descriptors.

EJB query

In EJB query language, a string that contains an optional SELECT clause specifying the EJB objects to return, a FROM clause that names the bean collections, an optional WHERE clause that contains search predicates over the collections, an optional ORDER BY clause that specifies the ordering of the result collection, and input parameters that correspond to the arguments of the finder method.

EJB reference

A logical name used by an application to locate the home interface of an enterprise bean in the target operational environment.

EJB server

Software that provides services to an EJB container. An EJB server may host one or more EJB containers. (Sun)

embedded server

A catalog service or container server that resides in an existing process and is started and stopped within the process.


1. A JCA application or other client consumer of an event from the enterprise information system.

2. The system that is the origin or destination of a session.

endpoint listener

The point or address at which incoming messages for a Web service are received by a service integration bus.

enterprise application project (EAR project)

A structure and hierarchy of folders and files that contain a deployment descriptor and IBM extension document as well as files that are common to all Java EE modules that are defined in the deployment descriptor.


A specialized type of JAR file, defined by the Java EE standard, used to deploy Java EE applications to Java EE application servers. An EAR file contains EJB components, a deployment descriptor, and Web archive (WAR) files for individual Web applications. See also Web archive.

enterprise bean

A component that implements a business task or business entity and resides in an EJB container. Entity beans, session beans, and message-driven beans are all enterprise beans. (Sun) See also bean.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)

A component architecture defined by Sun Microsystems for the development and deployment of object-oriented, distributed, enterprise-level applications (Java EE).

enterprise service bus (ESB)

A flexible connectivity infrastructure for integrating applications and services; it offers a flexible and manageable approach to service-oriented architecture implementation.


1. A simple Java class that represents a row in a database table or entry in a map.

2. In markup languages such as XML, a collection of characters that can be referenced as a unit, for example to incorporate often-repeated text or special characters within a document.

entity bean

In EJB programming, an enterprise bean that represents persistent data maintained in a database. Each entity bean carries its own identity. (Sun)

entry breakpoint

A breakpoint set on a component element that is hit before the component element is invoked.


A named collection of logical and physical resources used to support the performance of a function.

environment variable

A variable that specifies how an operating system or another program runs, or the devices that the operating system recognizes.


A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.

error log stream

A continuous flow of error information that is transmitted using a predefined format.


See enterprise service bus.


1. A change to a state, such as the completion or failure of an operation, business process, or human task, that can trigger a subsequent action, such as persisting the event data to a data repository or invoking another business process.

2. A change to data in an enterprise information system (EIS) that is processed by the adapter and used to deliver business objects from the EIS to the endpoints (applications) that need to be notified of the change.


A component that controls the membership of entries in each BackingMap instance. Sparse caches can use evictors to automatically remove data from the cache without affecting the database.


A condition or event that cannot be handled by a normal process.

exception handler

A set of routines that responds to an abnormal condition. An exception handler is able to interrupt and to resume the normal running of processes.

exclusive lock

A lock that prevents concurrently executing application processes from accessing database data. See also shared lock.

execution trace

A chain of events that is recorded and displayed in a hierarchal format on the Events page of the integration test client.


An exposed interface from a Service Component Architecture (SCA) module that offers a business service to the outside world. An export has a binding that defines how the service can be accessed by service requesters, for example, as a Web service.

export file

1. A file created during the development process for inbound operations that contains the configuration settings for inbound processing.

2. The file containing data that has been exported.


An SQL or XQuery operand or a collection of SQL or XQuery operators and operands that yields a single value.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

A standard metalanguage for defining markup languages that is based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

eXtreme Scale grid

A pattern that is used to interact with eXtreme Scale when all of the data and clients are in one process.


In object-oriented programming, a class that is used to create instances of another class. A factory is used to isolate the creation of objects of a particular class into one place so that new functions can be provided without widespread code changes.


An automatic operation that switches to a redundant or standby system in the event of a software, hardware, or network interruption.


Pertaining to viewing an individual object in detail.


In object-oriented programming, to cause a state transition.


A network configuration, typically both hardware and software, that prevents unauthorized traffic into and out of a secure network.

fix pack

A cumulative collection of fixes that is made available between scheduled refresh packs, manufacturing refreshes, or releases. It is intended to allow customers to move to a specific maintenance level. See also interim fix.


A container used to organize objects.

for loop

A loop that repeats the same sequence of activities a specified number of times.


A process element that makes copies of its input and forwards them by several processing paths in parallel.

garbage collection

A routine that searches memory to reclaim space from program segments or inactive data.

General Inter-ORB Protocol (GIOP)

A protocol that Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) uses to define the format of messages.

generic object

An object that is used in API calls and XPATH expressions to refer to concepts, custom entities, or collections. For example, the XPATH expression /WSRR/GenericObject will retrieve all concepts from WebSphere Service Registry and Repository.

getter method

A method whose purpose is to get the value of an instance or class variable. This allows another object to find out the value of one of its variables.


See General Inter-ORB Protocol.


1. Pertaining to an element that is available to any process in the workspace. A global element appears in the project tree and can be used in multiple processes. Tasks, processes, repositories, and services can be either global (referenced by any process in the project) or local (specific to a single process).

2. Pertaining to information available to more than one program or subroutine.

global attribute

In XML, an attribute that is declared as a child of the schema element rather than as part of a complex type definition. Global attributes can be referenced in one or more content models using the ref attribute.

global element

In XML, an element that is declared as a child of the schema element rather than as part of a complex type definition. Global elements can be referenced in one or more content models using the ref attribute.

global instance identifier

A globally unique identifier that is generated either by the application or by the emitter and is used as a primary key for event identification.

global security

Pertains to all applications running in the environment and determines whether security is used, the type of registry used for authentication, and other values, many of which act as defaults.

global transaction

A recoverable unit of work performed by one or more resource managers in a distributed transaction environment and coordinated by an external transaction manager.

global variable

A variable that is used to hold and manipulate values assigned to it during translation and that is shared across maps and across document translations. One of the three types of variables supported by the Data Interchange Services mapping command language.


1. A collection of users who can share access authorities for protected resources.

2. A set of related documents within an interchange. An interchange can contain zero to many groups.

3. In places, two or more people who are grouped for membership in a place.


See high availability.

HA group

A collection of one or more members used to provide high availability for a process.

HA policy

A set of rules that is defined for an HA group that dictate whether zero (0), or more members are activated. The policy is associated with a specific HA group by matching the policy match criteria with the group name.


The general condition or state of the database environment.


A signal that one entity sends to another to convey that it is still active.

high availability (HA)

Pertaining to a clustered system that is reconfigured when node or daemon failures occur, so that workloads can be redistributed to the remaining nodes in the cluster.

high availability manager

A framework within which core group membership is determined and status is communicated between core group members.


1. A computer that is connected to a network and that provides an access point to that network. The host can be a client, a server, or both a client and server simultaneously.

2. In performance profiling, a machine that owns processes that are being profiled. See also server.

host name

1. In Internet communication, the name given to a computer. The host name might be a fully qualified domain name such as, or it might be a specific subname such as mycomputer.

2. The network name for a network adapter on a physical machine in which the node is installed.

host system

An enterprise mainframe computer system that hosts 3270 applications. In the 3270 terminal service development tools, the developer uses the 3270 terminal service recorder to connect to the host system.


A Web protocol for secure transactions that encrypts and decrypts user page requests and pages returned by the Web server.


1. See HTTP over SSL.

2. See Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)

An Internet protocol that is used by Web servers and Web browsers to transfer and display hypermedia documents securely across the Internet.


See integrated development environment.

if-then rule

A rule in which the action (then part) is performed only when the condition (if part) is true.


See Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.


1. A development artifact that imports a service that is external to a module.

2. The point at which an SCA module accesses an external service, (a service outside the SCA module) as if it was local. An import defines interactions between the SCA module and the service provider. An import has a binding and one or more interfaces.


A set of pointers that are logically ordered by the values of a key. Indexes provide quick access to data and can enforce uniqueness of the key values for the rows in the table.

information center

A collection of information that provides support for users of one or more products, can be launched separately from the product, and includes a list of topics for navigation and a search engine.


An object-oriented programming technique in which existing classes are used as a basis for creating other classes. Through inheritance, more specific elements incorporate the structure and behavior of more general elements.

installation package

An installable unit of a software product. Software product packages are separately installable units that can operate independently from other packages of that software product.

installation target

The system on which selected installation packages are installed.


A specific occurrence of an object that belongs to a class.


To represent an abstraction with a concrete instance.

integrated development environment (IDE)

A set of software development tools, such as source editors, compilers, and debuggers, that are accessible from a single user interface.


A collection of operations that are used to specify a service of a class or a component.

interim fix

A certified fix that is generally available to all customers between regularly scheduled fix packs, refresh packs, or releases. See also fix pack.

Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP)

A protocol used for communication between Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) object request brokers.

Internet Protocol (IP)

A protocol that routes data through a network or interconnected networks. This protocol acts as an intermediary between the higher protocol layers and the physical network.


The activation of a program or procedure.


See Internet Protocol.

IP sprayer

A device that is located between inbound requests from the users and the application server nodes that reroutes requests across nodes.


See loop.


A class or construct that is used to step through a collection of objects one at a time.


See Java Authentication and Authorization Service.


See JavaBeans Activation Framework.

JAR file

A Java archive file. See also Web archive, enterprise archive.


An object-oriented programming language for portable interpretive code that supports interaction among remote objects. Java was developed and specified by Sun Microsystems, Incorporated.

Java API for XML (JAX)

A set of Java-based APIs for handling various operations involving data defined through Extensible Markup Language (XML).

Java archive

A compressed file format for storing all of the resources that are required to install and run a Java program in a single file. See also Web archive, enterprise archive.

Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS)

In Java EE technology, a standard API for performing security-based operations. Through JAAS, services can authenticate and authorize users while enabling the applications to remain independent from underlying technologies.

Java class

A class that is written in the Java language.

Java Command Language

A scripting language for the Java environment that is used to create Web content and to control Java applications.

Java Connector security

An architecture designed to extend the end-to-end security model for Java EE-based applications to include enterprise information systems (EIS).

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)

An industry standard for database-independent connectivity between the Java platform and a wide range of databases. The JDBC interface provides a call level interface for SQL-based and XQuery-based database access.

Java EE

See Java Platform, Enterprise Edition.

Java EE application

Any deployable unit of Java EE functionality. This unit can be a single module or a group of modules packaged into an EAR file with a Java EE application deployment descriptor. (Sun)

Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA)

A standard architecture for connecting the Java EE platform to heterogeneous enterprise information systems (EIS).

Java EE server

A runtime environment that provides EJB or Web containers.

Java file

An editable source file (with .java extension) that can be compiled into bytecode (a .class file).

Java Management Extensions (JMX)

A means of doing management of and through Java technology. JMX is a universal, open extension of the Java programming language for management that can be deployed across all industries, wherever management is needed.

Java Message Service (JMS)

An application programming interface that provides Java language functions for handling messages.

Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI)

An extension to the Java platform that provides a standard interface for heterogeneous naming and directory services.

Java platform

A collective term for the Java language for writing programs; a set of APIs, class libraries, and other programs used in developing, compiling, and error-checking programs; and a JVM which loads and runs the class files. (Sun)

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE)

An environment for developing and deploying enterprise applications, defined by Sun Microsystems Inc. The Java EE platform consists of a set of services, application programming interfaces (APIs), and protocols that provide the functionality for developing multitiered, Web-based applications. (Sun)

Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE)

The core Java technology platform. (Sun)

Java project

In Eclipse, a project that contains compilable Java source code and is a container for source folders or packages.

Java runtime environment

A subset of a Java developer kit that contains the core executable programs and files that constitute the standard Java platform. The JRE includes the JVM (JVM), core classes, and supporting files.

Java SE

See Java Platform, Standard Edition.

Java SE Development Kit (JDK)

The name of the software development kit that Sun Microsystems provides for the Java platform.

Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE)

A Java package that enables secure Internet communications. It implements a Java version of the SSL and Transport Layer Security (TSL) protocols and supports data encryption, server authentication, message integrity, and optionally client authentication.

Java Specification Request (JSR)

A formally proposed specification for the Java platform.


A software implementation of a processor that runs compiled Java code (applets and applications).

JVM Profiler Interface (JVMPI)

A profiling tool that supports the collection of information, such as data about garbage collection and the JVM (JVM) API that runs the application server.


As defined for Java by Sun Microsystems, a portable, platform-independent, reusable component model. See also bean.

JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF)

A standard extension to the Java platform that determines arbitrary data types and available operations and can instantiate a bean to run pertinent services.


1. A tool that parses the declarations and documentation comments in a set of source files and produces a set of HTML pages describing the classes, inner classes, interfaces, constructors, methods, and fields. (Sun)

2. Pertaining to the tool that parses the declarations and documentation comments in a set of source files and produces a set of HTML pages describing the classes, inner classes, interfaces, constructors, methods, and fields.

JavaMail API

A platform and protocol-independent framework for building Java-based mail client applications.


A Web scripting language that is used in both browsers and Web servers. (Sun)

JavaScript Object Notation

A lightweight data-interchange format that is based on the object-literal notation of JavaScript™. JSON is programming-language neutral but uses conventions from languages that include C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python.


A server-side scripting technology that enables Java code to be dynamically embedded within Web pages (HTML files) and run when the page is served, in order to return dynamic content to a client.


See Java API for XML.


See Java EE Connector Architecture.


See Java Database Connectivity.


See Java SE Development Kit.


See Java Message Service.

JMS data binding

A data binding that provides a mapping between the format used by an external JMS message and the Service Data Object (SDO) representation used by a Service Component Architecture (SCA) module.


See Java Management Extensions.


See Java Naming and Directory Interface.


1. A process element that recombines and synchronizes parallel processing paths after a decision or fork. A join waits for input to arrive at each of its incoming branches before permitting the process to continue.

2. An SQL relational operation in which data can be retrieved from two tables, typically based on a join condition specifying join columns.

3. The configuration on an incoming link that determines the behavior of the link.


See JavaServer Pages.

JSP file

A scripted HTML file that has a .jsp extension and allows for the inclusion of dynamic content in Web pages. A JSP file can be directly requested as a URL, called by a servlet, or called from within an HTML page.

JSP page

A text-based document using fixed template data and JSP elements that describes how to process a request to create a response. (Sun)


See Java Specification Request.


See Java Secure Socket Extension.


See JVM.


See JVM Profiler Interface.


An implementation of the Python programming language that is integrated with the Java platform.


1. A cryptographic mathematical value that is used to digitally sign, verify, encrypt, or decrypt a message.

2. Information that characterizes and uniquely identifies the real-world entity that is being tracked by a monitoring context.


One of the predefined words of a programming language, artificial language, application, or command.


See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

LDAP directory

A type of repository that stores information on people, organizations, and other resources and that is accessed using the LDAP protocol. The entries in the repository are organized into a hierarchical structure, and in some cases the hierarchical structure reflects the structure or geography of an organization.


1. A collection of model elements, including business items, processes, tasks, resources, and organizations.

2. A project that is used for the development, version management, and organization of shared resources. Only a subset of the artifact types can be created and stored in a library, such as business objects and interfaces.

life cycle

One complete pass through the four phases of software development: inception, elaboration, construction and transition.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

An open protocol that uses TCP/IP to provide access to directories that support an X.500 model and that does not incur the resource requirements of the more complex X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP). For example, LDAP can be used to locate people, organizations, and other resources in an Internet or intranet directory.

Lightweight Third Party Authentication (LTPA)

A protocol that uses cryptography to support security in a distributed environment.


A program that detects incoming requests and starts the associated channel.

listener port

An object that defines the association between a connection factory, a destination, and a deployed message-driven bean. Listener ports simplify the administration of the associations between these resources.

load balancing

The monitoring of application servers and management of the workload on servers. If one server exceeds its workload, requests are forwarded to another server with more capacity.


A component that reads data from and writes data to a persistent store.


1. Pertaining to a device, file, or system that is accessed directly from a user system, without the use of a communication line.

2. Pertaining to an element that is available only in its own process.

local database

A database that is located on the workstation in use.


A means of preventing uncommitted changes made by one application process from being perceived by another application process and for preventing one application process from updating data that is being accessed by another process. A lock ensures the integrity of data by preventing concurrent users from accessing inconsistent data.


The recording of data about specific events on the system, such as errors.

long name

The property that specifies the logical name for the server on the z/OS platform.


A sequence of instructions performed repeatedly.


See Lightweight Third Party Authentication.

maintenance mode

A state of a node or server that an administrator can use to diagnose, maintain, or tune the node or server without disrupting incoming traffic in a production environment.

Managed Bean (MBean)

In the Java Management Extensions (JMX) specification, the Java objects that implement resources and their instrumentation.


1. A data structure that maps keys to values.

2. A file that defines the transformation between sources and targets.

3. In the EJB development environment, the specification of how the container-managed persistent fields of an enterprise bean correspond to columns in a relational database table or other persistent storage.


See Managed Bean.

MBean provider

A library containing an implementation of a Java Management Extensions (JMX) MBean and its MBean Extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptor file.

memory leak

The effect of a program that maintains references to objects that are no longer required and therefore need to be reclaimed.


In object-oriented programming, an operation that an object can perform. An object can have many methods.


A holder for information, typically a business performance measurement, in a monitoring context.


A logical container in which all the names are unique. The unique identifier for an artifact is composed of the namespace and the local name of the artifact.


1. A logical grouping of managed servers.

2. Any item on a tree control, including a simple element, compound element, mapping command, comment, or group node.

3. In XML, the smallest unit of valid, complete structure in a document.

4. The fundamental shapes that make up a diagram.

node agent

An administrative agent that manages all application servers on a node and represents the node in the management cell.


In object-oriented design or programming, a concrete realization (instance) of a class that consists of data and the operations associated with that data. An object contains the instance data that is defined by the class, but the class owns the operations that are associated with the data.

Object Request Broker (ORB)

In object-oriented programming, software that serves as an intermediary by transparently enabling objects to exchange requests and responses.

object-oriented programming

A programming approach based on the concepts of data abstraction and inheritance. Unlike procedural programming techniques, object-oriented programming concentrates not on how something is accomplished but instead on what data objects comprise the problem and how they are manipulated.


A grid-enabled, memory database for applications that are written in Java. ObjectGrid can be used as an in-memory database or to distribute data across a network.


See Open Database Connectivity.

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

A standard application programming interface (API) for accessing data in both relational and nonrelational database management systems. Using this API, database applications can access data stored in database management systems on a variety of computers even if each database management system uses a different data storage format and programming interface.

open source

Pertaining to software whose source code is publicly available for use or modification. Open source software is typically developed as a public collaboration and made freely available, although its use and redistribution might be subject to licensing restrictions. Linux is a well known example of open source software.


An implementation of functions or queries that an object might be called to perform.


See Object Request Broker.


An entity where people cooperate to accomplish specified objectives, such as an enterprise, a company, or a factory.


1. In Java programming, a group of types. Packages are declared with the package keyword. (Sun)

2. The wrapper around the document content that defines the format used to transmit a document over the Internet, for example, RNIF, AS1, and AS2.


To assemble components into modules and modules into enterprise applications.

partitioning facility

A programming framework and a system management infrastructure that supports the concept of partitioning for enterprise beans, HTTP traffic, and database access.

Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (PMI)

A set of packages and libraries assigned to gather, deliver, process, and display performance data.


Authorization to perform activities, such as reading and writing local files, creating network connections, and loading native code.


To be maintained across session boundaries, typically in nonvolatile storage such as a database system or a directory.


1. A characteristic of data that is maintained across session boundaries, or of an object that continues to exist after the execution of the program or process that created it, typically in nonvolatile storage such as a database system.

2. In Java EE, the protocol for transferring the state of an entity bean between its instance variables and an underlying database. (Sun)

persistent data store

A nonvolatile storage for event data, such as a database system, that is maintained across session boundaries and that continues to exist after the execution of the program or process that created it.

pessimistic locking

A locking strategy whereby a lock is held between the time that a row is selected and the time that a searched update or delete operation is attempted on that row.


A separately installable software module that adds function to an existing program, application, or interface.


See Performance Monitoring Infrastructure.


Pertaining to a style of messaging application in which the sending application knows the destination of the message.


A set of considerations that influence the behavior of a managed resource or a user.


As defined in a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) document, a single endpoint that is defined as a combination of a binding and a network address.

port number

In Internet communications, the identifier for a logical connector between an application entity and the transport service.

primary key

1. An object that uniquely identifies an entity bean of a particular type.

2. In a relational database, a key that uniquely identifies one row of a database table.

primitive type

In Java, a category of data type that describes a variable that contains a single value of the appropriate size and format for its type: a number, a character, or a Boolean value. Examples of primitive types include byte, short, int, long, float, double, char, boolean.


1. A progressively continuing procedure consisting of a series of controlled activities that are systematically directed toward a particular result or end.

2. The sequence of documents or messages to be exchanged between the Community Managers and participants to run a business transaction.


Data that describes the characteristics of a user, group, resource, program, device, or remote location.

program temporary fix (PTF)

For System i, System p, and System z products, a fix that is tested by IBM and is made available to all customers. See also fix pack.


A component of an action that indicates that user input is required for a field before making a transition to an output screen.


A characteristic of an object that describes the object. A property can be changed or modified. Properties can describe an object name, type, value, or behavior, among other things.

protocol binding

A binding that enables the enterprise service bus to process messages independently of the communication protocol.


An application gateway from one network to another for a specific network application such as Telnet or FTP, for example, where a firewall proxy Telnet server performs authentication of the user and then lets the traffic flow through the proxy as if it were not there. Function is performed in the firewall and not in the client workstation, causing more load in the firewall.

proxy cluster

A group of proxy servers that distributes HTTP requests across the cluster.

proxy peer access point

A means of identifying the communication settings for a peer access point that cannot be accessed directly.

proxy server

1. A server that acts as an intermediary for HTTP Web requests that are hosted by an application or a Web server. A proxy server acts as a surrogate for the content servers in the enterprise.

2. A server that receives requests intended for another server and that acts on behalf of the client (as the client's proxy) to obtain the requested service. A proxy server is often used when the client and the server are incompatible for direct connection. For example, the client is unable to meet the security authentication requirements of the server but should be permitted some services.


See program temporary fix.


1. In object-oriented programming, pertaining to a class member that is accessible to all classes.

2. In the Java programming language, pertains to a method or variable that can be accessed by elements residing in other classes. (Sun)


See quality of service.


A simple element that gives another generic compound or simple element a specific meaning. Qualifiers are used in mapping single or multiple occurrences. A qualifier can also be used to denote the namespace used to interpret the second part of the name, typically referred to as the ID.

quality of service (QoS)

A set of communication characteristics that an application requires. Quality of Service (QoS) defines a specific transmission priority, level of route reliability, and security level.


1. A request for information from a database based on specific conditions: for example, a request for a list of all customers in a customer table whose balances are greater than USD1000.

2. A reusable request for information about one or more model elements

read-through cache

A sparse cache that loads data entries by key as they are requested. When data cannot be found in the cache, the missing data is retrieved with the loader, which loads the data from the back-end data repository and inserts the data into the cache.


A programming technique in which a program or routine calls itself to perform successive steps in an operation, with each step using the output of the preceding step.

refresh pack

A cumulative collection of fixes that contains new functions. See also fix pack, interim fix.


A contiguous area of virtual storage that has common characteristics and that can be shared between processes.


A server that contains a copy of the directory or directories of another server. Replicas back up servers in order to enhance performance or response times and to ensure data integrity.


The process of maintaining a defined set of data in more than one location. Replication involves copying designated changes for one location (a source) to another (a target) and synchronizing the data in both locations.


1. A discrete asset, for example application suites, applications, business services, interfaces, endpoints, and business events.

2. A facility of a computing system or operating system required by a job, task, or running program. Resources include main storage, input/output devices, the processing unit, data sets, files, libraries, folders, application servers, and control or processing programs.

3. A person, piece of equipment, or material that is used to perform a task or a project. Each resource is a particular occurrence or example of a resource definition.


1. A description of a function to be carried out by an individual or bulk resource, and the qualifications required to fulfill the function. In simulation and analysis, the term role is also used to refer to the qualified resources.

2. A job function that identifies the tasks that a user can perform and the resources to which a user has access. A user can be assigned one or more roles.

3. A logical group of principals that provides a set of permissions. Access to operations is controlled by granting access to a role.

4. In a relationship, a role determines the function and participation of entities. Roles capture structure and constraint requirements on participating entities and their manner of participation. For example, in an employment relationship, the roles are employer and employee.


The user name for the system user with the most authority.

run time

The time period during which a computer program is running.

runtime topology

A depiction of the momentary state of the environment.


The ability of a system to expand as resources, such as processors, memory, or storage, are added.


1. A specification of the boundary within which system resources can be used.

2. In Web services, a property that identifies the lifetime of the object serving the invocation request.


A series of commands, combined in a file, that carry out a particular function when the file is run. Scripts are interpreted as they are run.


A style of programming that reuses existing components as a base for building applications.


See software development kit.


A security protocol that provides communication privacy. With SSL, client/server applications can communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery.

security administrator

The person who controls access to business data and program functions.

security token

A representation of a set of claims that are made by a client that can include a name, password, identity, key, certificate, group, privilege, and so on.


In object-oriented programming, the writing of data in sequential fashion to a communications medium from program memory.


A method for converting object data to another form such as binary or XML.

servant region

A contiguous area of virtual storage that is dynamically started as load increases and automatically stopped as load eases.


A software program or a computer that provides services to other software programs or other computers. See also host.

server cluster

A group of servers that are typically on different physical machines and have the same applications configured within them, but operate as a single logical server.

service level agreement (SLA)

A contract between a customer and a service provider that specifies the expectations for the level of service with respect to availability, performance, and other measurable objectives.


A Java program that runs on a Web server and extends the server functions by generating dynamic content in response to Web client requests. Servlets are commonly used to connect databases to the Web.


1. A logical or virtual connection between two stations, software programs, or devices on a network that allows the two elements to communicate and exchange data.

2. A series of requests to a servlet originating from the same user at the same browser.

3. In Java EE, an object used by a servlet to track user interaction with a Web application across multiple HTTP requests.

session affinity

A method of configuring applications in which a client is always connected to the same server. These configurations disable workload management after an initial connection by forcing a client request to always go to the same server.

setter method

A method whose purpose is to set the value of an instance or class variable. This capability allows another object to set the value of one of its variables.


An instance of a partition. A shard can be a primary or replica.

shared lock

A lock that limits concurrently running application processes to read-only operations on database data.

shell script

A program, or script, that is interpreted by the shell of an operating system.

signer certificate

The trusted certificate entry that is typically in a truststore file.

silent installation

An installation that does not send messages to the console but instead stores messages and errors in log files. A silent installation can use response files for data input.

silent mode

A method for installing or uninstalling a product component from the command line with no GUI display. When using silent mode, you specify the data required by the installation or uninstallation program directly on the command line or in a file (called an option file or response file).


Scaffolding for an implementation class.


See service level agreement.

software development kit (SDK)

A set of tools, APIs, and documentation to assist with the development of software in a specific computer language or for a particular operating environment.


See Structured Query Language.

SQL query

A component of certain SQL statements that specifies a result table.


See Secure Sockets Layer.

SSL channel

A type of channel within a transport chain that associates a SSL configuration repertoire with the transport chain.


An area in memory that typically stores information such as temporary register information, values of parameters, and return addresses of subroutines and is based on the principle of last in, first out (LIFO).


Independent of any other device, program, or system. In a network environment, a stand-alone machine accesses all required resources locally.

stand-alone server

A catalog service or container server that is managed from the operating system that starts and stops the server process.


A Java programming language keyword that is used to define a variable as a class variable.


In programming languages, the form of data used for storing and manipulating text.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

A standardized language for defining and manipulating data in a relational database.


In Java, a class that is derived from a particular class, through inheritance.


In SQL, a subselect used within a predicate, for example, a select-statement within the WHERE or HAVING clause of another SQL statement.


To add, subtract, or change one feature or artifact to match another.

synchronous process

A process that starts by invoking a request-response operation. The result of the process is returned by the same operation.

synchronous replica

A shard that receives updates as part of the transaction on the primary shard to guarantee data consistency, which can increase the response time compared with an asynchronous replica.


The rules for the construction of a command or statement.

systems analyst

A specialist who is responsible for translating business requirements into system definitions and solutions.


See Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP channel

A type of channel within a transport chain that provides client applications with persistent connections within a local area network (LAN).


See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TCP/IP monitoring server

A runtime environment that monitors all requests and responses between a Web browser and an application server, as well as TCP/IP activity.

thin application client

A lightweight, downloadable Java application run time capable of interacting with enterprise beans.

thin client

A client that has little or no installed software but has access to software that is managed and delivered by network servers that are attached to it. A thin client is an alternative to a full-function client such as a workstation.


A stream of computer instructions that is in control of a process. In some operating systems, a thread is the smallest unit of operation in a process. Several threads can run concurrently, performing different jobs.

thread contention

A condition in which a thread is waiting for a lock or object that another thread holds.


A setting that applies to an interrupt in a simulation that defines when a process simulation should be halted based on a condition existing for a specified proportion of occurrences of some event.


The measure of the amount of work performed by a device, such as a computer or printer, over a period of time, for example, number of jobs per day.

time to live

The time interval in seconds that an entry can exist in the cache before that entry is discarded.


A time interval that is allotted for an event to occur or complete before operation is interrupted.


A task that produces output at certain points in time.

timing constraint

A specialized validation action used to measure the duration of a method call or a sequence of method calls.

Tivoli Performance Viewer

A Java client that retrieves the Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (PMI) data from an application server and displays it in various formats.


1. A marker used to track the current state of a process instance during a simulation run.

2. A particular message or bit pattern that signifies permission or temporary control to transmit over a network.


The physical or logical mapping of the location of networking components or nodes within a network. Common network topologies include bus, ring, star, and tree.


A process in which all of the data modifications that are made during a transaction are either committed together as a unit or rolled back as a unit.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

A communication protocol used in the Internet and in any network that follows the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards for internetwork protocol. TCP provides a reliable host-to-host protocol in packet-switched communication networks and in interconnected systems of such networks.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

An industry-standard, nonproprietary set of communication protocols that provides reliable end-to-end connections between applications over interconnected networks of different types.

truststore file

A key database file that contains the public keys for a trusted entity.


1. In Java programming, a class or interface.

2. In a WSDL document, an element that contains data type definitions using some type system (such as XSD).


See Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

1. A compact string of characters for identifying an abstract or physical resource.

2. A unique address that is used to identify content on the Web, such as a page of text, a video or sound clip, a still or animated image, or a program. The most common form of URI is the Web page address, which is a particular form or subset of URI called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). A URI typically describes how to access the resource, the computer that contains the resource, and the name of the resource (a file name) on the computer.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

The unique address of an information resource that is accessible in a network such as the Internet. The URL includes the abbreviated name of the protocol used to access the information resource and the information used by the protocol to locate the information resource.

Uniform Resource Name (URN)

A name that uniquely identifies a Web service to a client.

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI)

A set of standards-based specifications that enables companies and applications to quickly and find and use Web services over the Internet.

Universally Unique Identifier (UUID)

The 128-bit numerical identifier that is used to ensure that two components do not have the same identifier.

UNIX System Services

An element of z/OS that creates a UNIX environment that conforms to XPG4 UNIX 1995 specifications and that provides two open-system interfaces on the z/OS operating system: an application programming interface (API) and an interactive shell interface.

upgradeable lock

A lock that identifies the intent to update a cache entry when using a pessimistic lock.


Pertaining to the direction of the flow, which is from the start of the process (upstream) toward the end of the process (downstream).


See Uniform Resource Identifier.


See Uniform Resource Locator.

URL scheme

A format that contains another object reference.


See Uniform Resource Name.


See Universally Unique Identifier.


A representation of a changeable value.


A separately licensed program that typically has significant new code or new function.

virtual host

A configuration enabling a single host machine to resemble multiple host machines. Resources associated with one virtual host cannot share data with resources associated with another virtual host, even if the virtual hosts share the same physical machine.

virtual machine

An abstract specification for a computing device that can be implemented in different ways in software and hardware.


A technique that encapsulates the characteristics of resources from the way in which other systems interact with those resources.


A thread waiting for a connection.


See Web archive.


See WebSphere Common Configuration Model.

Web archive (WAR)

A compressed file format, defined by the Java EE standard, for storing all the resources required to install and run a Web application in a single file. See also enterprise archive.

Web browser

A client program that initiates requests to a Web server and displays the information that the server returns.

Web component

A servlet, JSPs file, or a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) file. One or more Web components make up a Web module.

Web container

A container that implements the Web component contract of the Java EE architecture. (Sun)

Web container channel

A type of channel within a transport chain that creates a bridge in the transport chain between an HTTP inbound channel and a servlet or JSPs engine.

Web crawler

A type of crawler that explores the Web by retrieving a Web document and following the links within that document.

Web server

A software program that is capable of servicing Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests.

Web server plug-in

A software module that supports the Web server in communicating requests for dynamic content, such as servlets, to the application server.

Web server separation

A topology where the Web server is physically separated from the application server.

Web site

A related collection of files available on the Web that is managed by a single entity (an organization or an individual) and contains information in hypertext for its users. A Web site often includes hypertext links to other Web sites.


An IBM brand name that encompasses tools for developing e-business applications and middleware for running Web applications.

WebSphere Common Configuration Model (WCCM)

A model that provides for programmatic access to configuration data.

what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG)

A capability of an editor to continually display pages exactly as they will be printed or otherwise rendered.

while loop

A loop that repeats the same sequence of activities as long as some condition is satisfied. The while loop tests its condition at the beginning of every loop. If the condition is false from the start, the sequence of activities contained in the loop never runs.


See Workload Manager.

workload management

The optimization of the distribution of incoming work requests to the application servers, enterprise beans, servlets and other objects that can effectively process the request.

Workload Manager (WLM)

A component of z/OS that provides the ability to run multiple workloads at the same time within one z/OS image or across multiple images.


1. A directory on disk that contains all project files, as well as information such as preferences.

2. A temporary repository of configuration information that administrative clients use.

3. In Eclipse, the collection of projects and other resources that the user is currently developing in the workbench. Metadata about these resources resides in a directory on the file system; the resources might reside in the same directory.

write-behind cache

A cache that asynchronously writes each write operation to the database using a loader.

write-through cache

A cache that synchronously writes each write operation to the database using a loader.


See what you see is what you get.

X/Open XA

The X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing XA interface. A proposed standard for distributed transaction communication. The standard specifies a bidirectional interface between resource managers that provide access to shared resources within transactions, and between a transaction service that monitors and resolves transactions.


A bidirectional interface between one or more resource managers that provide access to shared resources and a transaction manager that monitors and resolves transactions.


See Extensible Markup Language.


An IBM mainframe operating system that uses 64-bit real storage.

zone-based support

A function that enables rules-based shard placement to improve grid availability by placing shards across different data centers, whether on different floors or even in different buildings or geographies.


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