User Commands                                               vi(1)


vi, view, vedit - screen-oriented (visual) display editor based on ex


/usr/bin/vi [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ filename ] ] [ -S ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] filename ... /usr/bin/view [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ filename ] ] [ -S ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] filename ... /usr/bin/vedit [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ filename ] ] [ -S ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] filename ... /usr/xpg4/bin/vi [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ filename ] ] [ -S ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] filename ... /usr/xpg4/bin/view [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ filename ] ] [ -S ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] filename ... /usr/xpg4/bin/vedit [ -| -s ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -R ] [ -r [ filename ] ] [ -S ] [ -t tag ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -x ] [ -wn ] [ -C ] [ +command | -c command ] filename ...


vi (visual) is a display-oriented text editor based on an underlying line editor ex. It is possible to use the command mode of ex from within vi and to use the command mode of vi from within ex. The visual commands are described on this manual page; how to set options (like automatically number- ing lines and automatically starting a new output line when you type carriage return) and all ex line editor commands are described on the ex(1) manual page. When using vi, changes you make to the file are reflected in what you see on your terminal screen. The position of the cursor on the screen indicates the position within the file. The view invocation is the same as vi except that the readonly flag is set. The vedit invocation is intended for beginners. It is the same as vi except that the report flag is set to 1, the showmode and novice flags are set, and magic is turned off. These defaults make it easier to learn how to use vi. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 1 User Commands vi(1)


Invocation Options The following invocation options are interpreted by vi (pre- viously documented options are discussed in the NOTES sec- tion of this manual page): - | -s Suppress all interactive user feedback. This is useful when processing editor scripts. -C Encryption option; same as the -x option, except that vi simulates the C command of ex. The C command is like the X command of ex, except that all text read in is assumed to have been encrypted. -l Set up for editing LISP programs. -L List the name of all files saved as the result of an editor or system crash. -r filename Edit filename after an editor or system crash. (Recov- ers the version of filename that was in the buffer when the crash occurred.) -R Readonly mode; the readonly flag is set, preventing accidental overwriting of the file. -S This option is used in conjunction with the -t tag option to tell vi that the tags file may not be sorted and that, if the binary search (which relies on a sorted tags file) for tag fails to find it, the much slower linear search should also be done. Since the linear search is slow, users of large tags files should ensure that the tags files are sorted rather than use this flag. Creation of tags files normally produces sorted tags files. See ctags(1) for more information on tags files. -t tag Edit the file containing the tag, tag, and position the editor at its definition. -v Start up in display editing state using vi. You can achieve the same effect by simply typing the vi com- mand itself. -V Verbose. When ex commands are read by means of stan- dard input, the input will be echoed to standard error. This may be useful when processing ex commands within shell scripts. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 2 User Commands vi(1) -wn Set the default window size to n. This is useful when using the editor over a slow speed line. -x Encryption option; when used, vi simulates the X com- mand of ex and prompts the user for a key. This key is used to encrypt and decrypt text using the algorithm of the crypt command. The X command makes an educated guess to determine whether text read in is encrypted or not. The temporary buffer file is encrypted also, using a transformed version of the key typed in for the -x option. If an empty encryption key is entered (that is, if the return key is pressed right after the prompt), the file will not be encrypted. This is a good way to decrypt a file erroneously encrypted with a mistyped encryption key, such as a backspace or undo key. +command | -c command Begin editing by executing the specified editor com- mand (usually a search or positioning command). /usr/xpg4/bin/vi If both the -t tag and the -c command options are given, the -t tag option will be processed first. That is, the file containing tag is selected by -t and then the command is executed.


The following operands are supported: filename A file to be edited. COMMAND SUMMARY vi Modes Command Normal and initial mode. Other modes return to command mode upon completion. ESC (escape) is used to cancel a partial command. Input Entered by setting any of the following options: a A i I o O c C s S R Arbitrary text may then be entered. Input mode is normally terminated with the ESC character, or, abnormally, with an interrupt. Last line Reading input for : / ? or !. Terminate by typing a carriage return. An interrupt cancels termination. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 3 User Commands vi(1) Sample commands In the descriptions, CR stands for carriage return and ESC stands for the escape key. <- -> down-arrow up-arrow arrow keys move the cursor h j k l same as arrow keys itextESC insert text cwnewESC change word to new easESC pluralize word (end of word; append s; escape from input state) x delete a character dw delete a word dd delete a line 3dd delete 3 lines u undo previous change ZZ exit vi, saving changes :q!CR quit, discarding changes /textCR search for text ^U ^D scroll up or down :cmdCR any ex or ed command Counts before vi commands Numbers may be typed as a prefix to some commands. They are interpreted in one of these ways: SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 4 User Commands vi(1) line/column number z G | scroll amount ^D ^U repeat effect most of the rest Interrupting, canceling ESC end insert or incomplete command DEL (delete or rubout) interrupts File manipulation ZZ if file modified, write and exit; otherwise, exit :wCR write back changes :w!CR forced write, if permission originally not valid :qCR quit :q!CR quit, discard changes :e nameCR edit file name :e!CR reedit, discard changes :e + nameCR edit, starting at end :e +nCR edit, starting at line n :e #CR edit alternate file :e! #CR edit alternate file, discard changes :w nameCR write file name :w! nameCR overwrite file name :shCR run shell, then return :!cmdCR run cmd, then return SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 5 User Commands vi(1) :nCR edit next file in arglist :n argsCR specify new arglist ^G show current file and line :ta tagCR position cursor to tag In general, any ex or ed command (such as substitute or glo- bal) may be typed, preceded by a colon and followed by a carriage return. Positioning within file F forward screen ^B backward screen ^D scroll down half screen ^U scroll up half screen nG go to the beginning of the specified line (end default), where n is a line number /pat next line matching pat ?pat previous line matching pat n repeat last / or ? command N reverse last / or ? command /pat/+n nth line after pat ?pat?-n nth line before pat ]] next section/function [[ previous section/function ( beginning of sentence ) end of sentence { beginning of paragraph } end of paragraph SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 6 User Commands vi(1) % find matching ( ) or { } Adjusting the screen ^L clear and redraw window ^R clear and redraw window if ^L is -> key zCR redraw screen with current line at top of window z-CR redraw screen with current line at bottom of window z.CR redraw screen with current line at center of window /pat/z-CR move pat line to bottom of window zn.CR use n-line window ^E scroll window down one line ^Y scroll window up one line Marking and returning `` move cursor to previous context '' move cursor to first non-white space in line mx mark current position with the ASCII lower-case letter x `x move cursor to mark x 'x move cursor to first non-white space in line marked by x Line positioning H top line on screen L last line on screen M middle line on screen + next line, at first non-white space character - previous line, at first non-white space character CR return, same as + down-arrow or j next line, same column SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 7 User Commands vi(1) up-arrow or k previous line, same column Character positioning ^ first non-white space character 0 beginning of line $ end of line l or -> forward h or <- backward ^H same as <- (backspace) space same as -> (space bar) fx find next x Fx find previous x tx move to character following the next x Tx move to character following the previous x ; repeat last f, F, t, or T , repeat inverse of last f, F, t, or T n| move to column n % find matching ( ) or { } Words, sentences, paragraphs w forward a word b back a word e end of word ) to next sentence } to next paragraph ( back a sentence { back a paragraph SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 8 User Commands vi(1) W forward a blank-delimited word B back a blank-delimited word E end of a blank-delimited word Corrections during insert ^H erase last character (backspace) ^W erase last word erase your erase character, same as ^H (backspace) kill your kill character, erase this line of input \ quotes your erase and kill characters ESC ends insertion, back to command mode CTRL-C interrupt, suspends insert mode ^D backtab one character; reset left margin of autoindent ^^D caret (^) followed by control-d (^D); backtab to beginning of line; do not reset left margin of autoin- dent 0^D backtab to beginning of line; reset left margin of autoindent ^V quote non-printable character Insert and replace a append after cursor A append at end of line i insert before cursor I insert before first non-blank o open line below O open line above rx replace single character with x RtextESC replace characters SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 9 User Commands vi(1) Operators Operators are followed by a cursor motion and affect all text that would have been moved over. For example, since w moves over a word, dw deletes the word that would be moved over. Double the operator, for example dd, to affect whole lines. d delete c change y yank lines to buffer < left shift > right shift ! filter through command Miscellaneous Operations C change rest of line (c$) D delete rest of line (d$) s substitute characters (cl) S substitute lines (cc) J join lines x delete characters (dl) X delete characters before cursor dh) Y yank lines (yy) Yank and Put Put inserts the text most recently deleted or yanked; how- ever, if a buffer is named (using the ASCII lower-case letters a - z), the text in that buffer is put instead. 3yy yank 3 lines 3yl yank 3 characters p put back text after cursor P put back text before cursor "xp put from buffer x " .nr )I xy"n yank to buffer x " .nr )I xd"n SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 10 User Commands vi(1) delete into buffer x Undo, Redo, Retrieve u undo last change U restore current line . repeat last change " .nr )I dp"n retrieve d'th last delete USAGE See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of vi and view when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes). ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of vi: LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.


/var/tmp default directory where temporary work files are placed; it can be changed using the directory option (see the ex(1) command) /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/* compiled terminal description database /usr/lib/.COREterm/?/* subset of compiled terminal description database


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri- butes: /usr/bin/vi /usr/bin/view /usr/bin/vedit" ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWcsu | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | CSI | Not enabled | |_____________________________|_____________________________| /usr/xpg4/bin/vi /usr/xpg4/bin/view SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 11 User Commands vi(1) /usr/xpg4/bin/vedit" ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWxcu4 | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | CSI | Enabled | |_____________________________|_____________________________|


intro(1), ctags(1), ed(1), edit(1), ex(1), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), standards(5) OpenWindows Advanced User's Guide AUTHOR vi and ex were developed by The University of California, Berkeley California, Computer Science Division, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.


Two options, although they continue to be supported, have been replaced in the documentation by options that follow the Command Syntax Standard (see intro(1)). An -r option that is not followed with an option-argument has been replaced by -L and +command has been replaced by -c command. The message file too large to recover with -r option, which is seen when a file is loaded, indicates that the file can be edited and saved successfully, but if the editing session is lost, recovery of the file with the -r option will not be possible. The editing environment defaults to certain configuration options. When an editing session is initiated, vi attempts to read the EXINIT environment variable. If it exists, the editor uses the values defined in EXINIT; otherwise the values set in $HOME/.exrc are used. If $HOME/.exrc does not exist, the default values are used. To use a copy of .exrc located in the current directory other than $HOME, set the exrc option in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc . Options set in EXINIT can be turned off in a local .exrc only if exrc is set in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc. Tampering with entries in /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/* or /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/* (for example, changing or remov- ing an entry) can affect programs such as vi that expect the entry to be present and correct. In particular, removing the "dumb" terminal may cause unexpected problems. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 12 User Commands vi(1) Software tabs using ^T work only immediately after the autoindent. Left and right shifts on intelligent terminals do not make use of insert and delete character operations in the termi- nal. The standard Solaris version of vi will be replaced by the POSIX.2-conforming version (see standards(5)) in the future. Scripts which use the ex family of addressing and features should use the /usr/xpg4/bin version of these utilities. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 18 Jun 1998 13