User Commands chmod(1)
NAMEchmod - change the permissions mode of a file
SYNOPSISchmod [ -fR ] <absolute-mode> file ... chmod [ -fR ] <symbolic-mode-list> file ...
DESCRIPTIONchmod changes or assigns the mode of a file. The mode of a file specifies its permissions and other attributes. The mode may be absolute or symbolic. Absolute mode An absolute mode is specified using octal numbers: chmod nnnn file ... where: n a number from 0 to 7. An absolute mode is con- structed from the OR of any of the following modes: 4000 Set user ID on execution. 20#0 Set group ID on execution if # is 7, 5, 3, or 1. Enable mandatory locking if # is 6, 4, 2, or 0. For directories, files are created with BSD semantics for propagation of the group ID. With this option, files and subdirectories created in the directory inherit the group ID of the directory, rather than of the current process. It may be cleared only by using symbolic mode. 1000 Turn on sticky bit. See chmod(2). 0400 Allow read by owner. 0200 Allow write by owner. 0100 Allow execute (search in directory) by owner. 0700 Allow read, write, and execute (search) by owner. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1995 1 User Commands chmod(1) 0040 Allow read by group. 0020 Allow write by group. 0010 Allow execute (search in directory) by group. 0070 Allow read, write, and execute (search) by group. 0004 Allow read by others. 0002 Allow write by others. 0001 Allow execute (search in directory) by oth- ers. 0007 Allow read, write, and execute (search) by others. Note that the setgid bit cannot be set (or cleared) in abso- lute mode; it must be set (or cleared) in symbolic mode using g+s (or g-s). Symbolic mode A symbolic mode specification has the following format: chmod <symbolic-mode-list> file... where: <symbolic-mode-list> is a comma-separated list (with no intervening whitespace) of symbolic mode expressions of the form: [who] operator [permissions] Operations are performed in the order given. Multiple per- missions letters following a single operator cause the corresponding operations to be performed simultaneously. who zero or more of the characters u, g, o, and a specify- ing whose permissions are to be changed or assigned: u user's permissions g group's permissions o others' permissions SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1995 2 User Commands chmod(1) a all permissions (user, group, and other) If who is omitted, it defaults to a, but the setting of the file mode creation mask (see umask in sh(1) or csh(1) for more information) is taken into account. When who is omitted, chmod will not override the res- trictions of your user mask. operator either +, -, or =, signifying how permissions are to be changed: + Add permissions. If permissions is omitted, nothing is added. If who is omitted, add the file mode bits represented by permissions, except for the those with corresponding bits in the file mode crea- tion mask. If who is present, add the file mode bits represented by the permissions. - Take away permissions. If permissions is omitted, do nothing. If who is omitted, clear the file mode bits represented by permissions, except for those with corresponding bits in the file mode crea- tion mask. If who is present, clear the file mode bits represented by permissions. = Assign permissions absolutely. If who is omitted, clear all file mode bits; if who is present, clear the file mode bits represented by who. If permissions is omitted, do nothing else. If who is omitted, add the file mode bits represented by permissions, except for the those with corresponding bits in the file mode crea- tion mask. If who is present, add the file mode bits represented by permissions. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1995 3 User Commands chmod(1) Unlike other symbolic operations, = has an absolute effect in that it resets all other bits represented by who. Omitting permissions is useful only with = to take away all permissions. permission any compatible combination of the following letters: r read permission w write permission x execute permission l mandatory locking s user or group set-ID t sticky bit u,g,o indicate that permission is to be taken from the current user, group or other mode respectively. Permissions to a file may vary depending on your user iden- tification number (UID) or group identification number (GID). Permissions are described in three sequences each having three characters: User Group Other rwx rwx rwx This example (user, group, and others all have permission to read, write, and execute a given file) demonstrates two categories for granting permissions: the access class and the permissions themselves. The letter s is only meaningful with u or g, and t only works with u. Mandatory file and record locking (l) refers to a file's ability to have its reading or writing permissions locked while a program is accessing that file. In a directory which has the set-group-ID bit set (reflected as either -----s--- or -----l--- in the output of 'ls -ld'), files and subdirectories are created with the group-ID of the parent directory-not that of current process. It is not possible to permit group execution and enable a file to be locked on execution at the same SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1995 4 User Commands chmod(1) time. In addition, it is not possible to turn on the set-group-ID bit and enable a file to be locked on execution at the same time. The following examples, therefore, are invalid and elicit error messages: chmod g+x,+l file chmod g+s,+l file Only the owner of a file or directory (or the super- user) may change that file's or directory's mode. Only the super-user may set the sticky bit on a non- directory file. If you are not super-user, chmod will mask the sticky-bit but will not return an error. In order to turn on a file's set-group-ID bit, your own group ID must correspond to the file's and group exe- cution must be set.
OPTIONSThe following options are supported: -f Force. chmod will not complain if it fails to change the mode of a file. -R Recursively descend through directory arguments, set- ting the mode for each file as described above. When symbolic links are encountered, the mode of the target file is changed, but no recursion takes place.
OPERANDSThe following operands are supported: mode Represents the change to be made to the file mode bits of each file named by one of the file operands; see the DESCRIPTION section for more information. file A path name of a file whose file mode bits are to be modified. USAGE See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of chmod when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes). EXAMPLES Example 1: Deny execute permission to everyone: example% chmod a-x file Example 2: Allow only read permission to everyone: SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1995 5 User Commands chmod(1) example% chmod 444 file Example 3: Make a file readable and writable by the group and others: example% chmod go+rw file example% chmod 066 file Example 4: Cause a file to be locked during access: example% chmod +l file Example 5: Allow everyone to read, write, and execute the file and turn on the set group-ID. example% chmod a=rwx,g+s file example% chmod 2777 file ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of chmod: LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH. EXIT STATUS The following exit values are returned: 0 Successful completion. >0 An error occurred.
ATTRIBUTESSee attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri- butes: ____________________________________________________________ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | Availability | SUNWcsu | |_____________________________|_____________________________| | CSI | enabled | |_____________________________|_____________________________|
SEE ALSOls(1), chmod(2), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), getfacl(1), setfacl(1)
NOTESAbsolute changes don't work for the set-group-ID bit of a directory. You must use g+s or g-s. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1995 6 User Commands chmod(1) chmod permits you to produce useless modes so long as they are not illegal (for instance, making a text file execut- able). chmod does not check the file type to see if manda- tory locking is meaningful. If the filesystem is mounted with the nosuid option, setuid execution is not allowed. If you use chmod to change the file group owner permissions on a file with ACL entries, both the file group owner per- missions and the ACL mask are changed to the new permis- sions. Be aware that the new ACL mask permissions may change the effective permissions for additional users and groups who have ACL entries on the file. Use the getfacl(1) command to make sure the appropriate permissions are set for all ACL entries. SunOS 5.8 Last change: 1 Feb 1995 7